Nginx配置移动端和电脑端自动双向跳转(301重定向的实际场景,附带apache配置)

Nginx配置移动端和电脑端自动双向跳转

场景(其实也是301重定向的场景)

pc端、www.ekanshu.com.cn 、 用于pc端访问

移动端、m.ekanshu.com.cn、用于移动端访问

需求

==在移动端访问www.ekanshu.com.cn和m.ekanshu.com.cn都跳转到m.ekanshu.com.cn==

实现方案

判断客户端的设备类型 要想让网站适配PC和手机设备,首先要能做出准确的判断。 HTTP请求的Header中的User-Agent可以区分客户端的浏览器类型,可以通过User-Agent来判断客户端的设备。

nginx原始配置

pc配置

server {
	listen       80;
	server_name  www.ekanshu.com.cn;
	location / {
		root   www;
		index  index.html index.htm;
	}
}

移动端配置

server {
	listen       80;
	server_name  m.ekanshu.com.cn;
	location / {
		root   m;
		index  index.html index.htm;
	}
}

页面信息

m/index.html

hi,this is mobile page,即mobile端页面;

www/index.html

hi,this is www page,即pc端页面;

nginx修改后配置

pc配置

server {
	listen       80;
	server_name  www.ekanshu.com.cn;
	if ($http_user_agent ~* (mobile|nokia|iphone|ipad|android|samsung|htc|blackberry)) {
      		rewrite  ^(.*)    http://m.ekanshu.com.cn$1 permanent;
     	}
	location / {
		root   www;
		index  index.html index.htm;
	}
}

移动端配置

server {
	listen       80;
	server_name  m.ekanshu.com.cn;
	if ($http_user_agent !~* (mobile|nokia|iphone|ipad|android|samsung|htc|blackberry)) {
      		rewrite  ^(.*)    http://www.ekanshu.com.cn$1 permanent;
     	}
	location / {
		root   m;
		index  index.html index.htm;
	}
}

效果

(1)pc


此时在pc访问m.ekanshu.com.cn
hi,this is www page,即pc端页面;

可以看到有两次http请求第一次请求m.ekanshu.com.cn发生了一次重定向 ,重定向到到了www.ekanshu.com.cn

此时在pc访问www.ekanshu.com.cn
hi,this is www page,即pc端页面;

可以看到有一次http请求第一次请求

(2)移动端

此时在移动端访问m.ekanshu.com.cn
hi,this is mobile page,即mobile端页面;

可以看到有一次http请求第一次请求

此时在移动端访问www.ekanshu.com.cn
hi,this is mobile page,即mobile端页面;

可以看到有两次http请求第一次请求www.ekanshu.com.cn发生了一次重定向,,重定向到到了 m.ekanshu.com.cn

原理

nginx 利用每次http请求过来的浏览器ua来区分是移动端还是pc,然后做相应的跳转

相关文档

百度的官方建议 国外开源的通过User-Agent区分PC和手机的解决方案:http://detectmobilebrowsers.com/

一下是几种语言的示例

php


<?php
$useragent=$_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT'];
if(preg_match('/(android|bb\d+|meego).+mobile|avantgo|bada\/|blackberry|blazer|compal|elaine|fennec|hiptop|iemobile|ip(hone|od)|iris|kindle|lge |maemo|midp|mmp|mobile.+firefox|netfront|opera m(ob|in)i|palm( os)?|phone|p(ixi|re)\/|plucker|pocket|psp|series(4|6)0|symbian|treo|up\.(browser|link)|vodafone|wap|windows ce|xda|xiino/i',$useragent)||preg_match('/1207|6310|6590|3gso|4thp|50[1-6]i|770s|802s|a wa|abac|ac(er|oo|s\-)|ai(ko|rn)|al(av|ca|co)|amoi|an(ex|ny|yw)|aptu|ar(ch|go)|as(te|us)|attw|au(di|\-m|r |s )|avan|be(ck|ll|nq)|bi(lb|rd)|bl(ac|az)|br(e|v)w|bumb|bw\-(n|u)|c55\/|capi|ccwa|cdm\-|cell|chtm|cldc|cmd\-|co(mp|nd)|craw|da(it|ll|ng)|dbte|dc\-s|devi|dica|dmob|do(c|p)o|ds(12|\-d)|el(49|ai)|em(l2|ul)|er(ic|k0)|esl8|ez([4-7]0|os|wa|ze)|fetc|fly(\-|_)|g1 u|g560|gene|gf\-5|g\-mo|go(\.w|od)|gr(ad|un)|haie|hcit|hd\-(m|p|t)|hei\-|hi(pt|ta)|hp( i|ip)|hs\-c|ht(c(\-| |_|a|g|p|s|t)|tp)|hu(aw|tc)|i\-(20|go|ma)|i230|iac( |\-|\/)|ibro|idea|ig01|ikom|im1k|inno|ipaq|iris|ja(t|v)a|jbro|jemu|jigs|kddi|keji|kgt( |\/)|klon|kpt |kwc\-|kyo(c|k)|le(no|xi)|lg( g|\/(k|l|u)|50|54|\-[a-w])|libw|lynx|m1\-w|m3ga|m50\/|ma(te|ui|xo)|mc(01|21|ca)|m\-cr|me(rc|ri)|mi(o8|oa|ts)|mmef|mo(01|02|bi|de|do|t(\-| |o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g |nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-/i',substr($useragent,0,4)))

header('Location: http://detectmobilebrowser.com/mobile');
?>


apache


RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /

RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (android|bb\d+|meego).+mobile|avantgo|bada\/|blackberry|blazer|compal|elaine|fennec|hiptop|iemobile|ip(hone|od)|iris|kindle|lge\ |maemo|midp|mmp|mobile.+firefox|netfront|opera\ m(ob|in)i|palm(\ os)?|phone|p(ixi|re)\/|plucker|pocket|psp|series(4|6)0|symbian|treo|up\.(browser|link)|vodafone|wap|windows\ ce|xda|xiino [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(1207|6310|6590|3gso|4thp|50[1-6]i|770s|802s|a\ wa|abac|ac(er|oo|s\-)|ai(ko|rn)|al(av|ca|co)|amoi|an(ex|ny|yw)|aptu|ar(ch|go)|as(te|us)|attw|au(di|\-m|r\ |s\ )|avan|be(ck|ll|nq)|bi(lb|rd)|bl(ac|az)|br(e|v)w|bumb|bw\-(n|u)|c55\/|capi|ccwa|cdm\-|cell|chtm|cldc|cmd\-|co(mp|nd)|craw|da(it|ll|ng)|dbte|dc\-s|devi|dica|dmob|do(c|p)o|ds(12|\-d)|el(49|ai)|em(l2|ul)|er(ic|k0)|esl8|ez([4-7]0|os|wa|ze)|fetc|fly(\-|_)|g1\ u|g560|gene|gf\-5|g\-mo|go(\.w|od)|gr(ad|un)|haie|hcit|hd\-(m|p|t)|hei\-|hi(pt|ta)|hp(\ i|ip)|hs\-c|ht(c(\-|\ |_|a|g|p|s|t)|tp)|hu(aw|tc)|i\-(20|go|ma)|i230|iac(\ |\-|\/)|ibro|idea|ig01|ikom|im1k|inno|ipaq|iris|ja(t|v)a|jbro|jemu|jigs|kddi|keji|kgt(\ |\/)|klon|kpt\ |kwc\-|kyo(c|k)|le(no|xi)|lg(\ g|\/(k|l|u)|50|54|\-[a-w])|libw|lynx|m1\-w|m3ga|m50\/|ma(te|ui|xo)|mc(01|21|ca)|m\-cr|me(rc|ri)|mi(o8|oa|ts)|mmef|mo(01|02|bi|de|do|t(\-|\ |o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v\ )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v\ )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-|\ )|webc|whit|wi(g\ |nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-) [NC]
RewriteRule ^$ http://detectmobilebrowser.com/mobile [R,L]

nginx


set $mobile_rewrite do_not_perform;

if ($http_user_agent ~* "(android|bb\d+|meego).+mobile|avantgo|bada\/|blackberry|blazer|compal|elaine|fennec|hiptop|iemobile|ip(hone|od)|iris|kindle|lge |maemo|midp|mmp|mobile.+firefox|netfront|opera m(ob|in)i|palm( os)?|phone|p(ixi|re)\/|plucker|pocket|psp|series(4|6)0|symbian|treo|up\.(browser|link)|vodafone|wap|windows ce|xda|xiino") {
  set $mobile_rewrite perform;
}

if ($http_user_agent ~* "^(1207|6310|6590|3gso|4thp|50[1-6]i|770s|802s|a wa|abac|ac(er|oo|s\-)|ai(ko|rn)|al(av|ca|co)|amoi|an(ex|ny|yw)|aptu|ar(ch|go)|as(te|us)|attw|au(di|\-m|r |s )|avan|be(ck|ll|nq)|bi(lb|rd)|bl(ac|az)|br(e|v)w|bumb|bw\-(n|u)|c55\/|capi|ccwa|cdm\-|cell|chtm|cldc|cmd\-|co(mp|nd)|craw|da(it|ll|ng)|dbte|dc\-s|devi|dica|dmob|do(c|p)o|ds(12|\-d)|el(49|ai)|em(l2|ul)|er(ic|k0)|esl8|ez([4-7]0|os|wa|ze)|fetc|fly(\-|_)|g1 u|g560|gene|gf\-5|g\-mo|go(\.w|od)|gr(ad|un)|haie|hcit|hd\-(m|p|t)|hei\-|hi(pt|ta)|hp( i|ip)|hs\-c|ht(c(\-| |_|a|g|p|s|t)|tp)|hu(aw|tc)|i\-(20|go|ma)|i230|iac( |\-|\/)|ibro|idea|ig01|ikom|im1k|inno|ipaq|iris|ja(t|v)a|jbro|jemu|jigs|kddi|keji|kgt( |\/)|klon|kpt |kwc\-|kyo(c|k)|le(no|xi)|lg( g|\/(k|l|u)|50|54|\-[a-w])|libw|lynx|m1\-w|m3ga|m50\/|ma(te|ui|xo)|mc(01|21|ca)|m\-cr|me(rc|ri)|mi(o8|oa|ts)|mmef|mo(01|02|bi|de|do|t(\-| |o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g |nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-)") {
  set $mobile_rewrite perform;
}

if ($mobile_rewrite = perform) {
  rewrite ^ http://detectmobilebrowser.com/mobile redirect;
  break;
}


apache web服务器中配置

Wordpress 有插件:https://wordpress.org/plugins/redirection/,可以添加301重定向,即:Redirect 301 /old-page.html /new-page.html

301重定向

httpd.conf 在 /etc/httpd/conf
httpd-vhost.conf 在 /etc/httpd/conf.d

httpd-vhost.conf即多站点配置文件,嵌套在httpd.conf中,部分代码 
IncludeOptional conf.d/*.conf 

第一章:修改配置
<VirtualHost *:80>
	ServerName test.com
	RedirectMatch permanent ^/(.*) http://www.test.com/$1
</VirtualHost>

第二章:重启
#测试配置文件是否有问题
systemctl httpd -t
systemctl httpd restart

第三章:测试
在浏览器上访问test.com是否跳转为www.test.com

第四章:配置多个域名重定向到一个域名
与第一章同理,需要添加过个虚拟机主机的块就行了。

重写规则,http to https.

RewriteCond是老的域名,RewriteRule是新的域名。 注意,要使用.htaccess文件,Apache必须开启rewirte模块。

在项目根目录采用.htaccess 进行设置

<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
#  错误页面跳转到index.html中
	RewriteEngine On
	RewriteBase /
	RewriteRule ^index\.html$ - [L]
	RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
	RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
	RewriteRule . /index.html [L]

# 将整个域名由不包含 www 的版本(non-www)重定向到带 www 的版本(www)
	RewriteEngine on
	RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^example.com [NC]
	RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.example.com/$1 [L,R=301,NC]

# 不带www跳转www的另一种写法
	RewriteEngine on 
	RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^example.com 
	RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.example.com/$1 [R=permanent,L]

# 从 www 到 non-www
	RewriteEngine on
	RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www.example.com [NC]
	RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://example.com/$1 [L,R=301,NC]

# 将网站域名由 HTTP 重定向到 HTTPS
	RewriteEngine On
	RewriteCond %{HTTPS} off
	RewriteRule ^(.*)$ https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [L,R=301]

# 将网站域名由 HTTP 重定向到 HTTPS,将网站的 non-www 版本重定向到 www 版本
	RewriteEngine On
	RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\. [NC]
	RewriteRule ^ https://www.%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [L,R=301]
	RewriteCond %{HTTP:X-Forwarded-Proto} !https
	RewriteCond %{HTTPS} off
	RewriteRule ^ https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [L,R=301]

 # old domain to new domain,并跳转新域名的https
	RewriteEngine on
	RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^oldsite.com [NC,OR]
	RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www.oldsite.com [NC]
	RewriteRule ^(.*)$ https://newsite.com/$1 [L,R=301,NC]
</IfModule>

假装有分割线

<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
    <IfModule mod_negotiation.c>
        Options -MultiViews -Indexes
    </IfModule>

    RewriteEngine On

# Handle Authorization Header
    RewriteCond %{HTTP:Authorization} .
    RewriteRule .* - [E=HTTP_AUTHORIZATION:%{HTTP:Authorization}]

# Redirect Trailing Slashes If Not A Folder...
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} (.+)/$
    RewriteRule ^ %1 [L,R=301]

# Handle Front Controller...
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
    RewriteRule ^ index.php [L]

# 泛域名 http to https
    RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} 80
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$ https://%{HTTP_HOST}/$1 [R,L]
</IfModule>

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